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Bonding and structure of a reconstructed (001) surface of SrTiO3 from TEM

Guo-zhen Zhu, Guillaume Radtke, Gianluigi Botton


The determination of the atomic structure and the retrieval of information about reconstruction and bonding of metal oxide surfaces is challenging owing to the highly defective structure and insulating properties of these surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers extremely high spatial resolution (less than one Ångström) and the ability to provide systematic information from both real and reciprocal space. However, very few TEM studies have been carried out on surfaces because the information from the bulk dominates the very weak signals originating from surfaces. Here we report an experimental approach to extract surface information effectively from a thickness series of electron energy-loss spectra containing different weights of surface signals, using a wedge-shaped sample. Using the (001) surface of the technologically important compound strontium titanate, SrTiO3, as a model system for validation, our method shows that surface spectra are sensitive to the atomic reconstruction and indicate bonding and crystal-field changes surrounding the surface Ti cations. Very good agreement can be achieved between the experimental surface spectra and crystal-field multiplet calculations based on the proposed atomic surface structure optimized by density functional calculations. The distorted TiO6-x units indicated by the proposed model can be viewed directly in our high-resolution scanning TEM images. We suggest that this approach be used as a general method to extract valuable spectroscopic information from surface atoms in parallel with high-resolution images in TEM.

CCEM Publications

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  8. X. Fu, P. Zamani, J.-Y. Choi, F. M. Hassan, G. Jiang, D. C. Higgins, Y. Zhang, M. A. Hoque, Z. Chen, In Situ Polymer Graphenization Ingrained with Nanoporosity in a Nitrogenous Electrocatalyst Boosting the Performance of Polymer-Electrolyte-Membrane Fuel Cells, Adv. Mater. 29, 1604456. (2017)
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  15. Braidy, N., Bastien, S., Blanchard, J., Fauteux-Lefebvre, C., Achouri, I.E., Abatzoglou, N., Activation mechanism and microstructural evolution of a YSZ/Ni-alumina catalyst for dry reforming of methane, Catalysis Today, Available online 21 March 2017. (2017)
  16. K.M. Cole, D.W. Kirk, C.V. Singh, S.J. Thorpe, Optimizing electrochemical micromachining parameters for Zr-based bulk metallic glass, Journal of Manufacturing Processes 25, 227–234. (2017)
  1. M.H.T. Dastjerdi, J.P. Boulanger, P. Kuyanov, M. Aagesen, R.R. LaPierre, Method of Ga droplet consumption for improved GaAs nanowire solar cell efficiency, Nanotechnology 27, 475403. (2016)
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  16. A.R.A. Fattah, Majdi, T., Abdalla, A.M., Ghosh, S., Puri, I.K., Nickel Nanoparticles Entangled in Carbon Nanotubes: Novel Ink for Nanotube Printing, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, 1589–1593. (2016)
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  20. Dipan Kundu, Brian D. Adams, Victor Duffort, Shahrzad Hosseini Vajargah, Linda F. Nazar, A high-capacity and long-life aqueous rechargeable zinc battery using a metal oxide intercalation cathode, Nature Energy 1, 16119. (2016)
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  27. Z. P. Cano, J. R. Kish, J. R. McDermid, On the Evolution of Cathodic Activity during Corrosion of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B in a Dilute NaCl Solution, J. Electrochem. Soc. 163, C62-C68. (2016)
  28. Suresh K. Konda, Mona Amiri, Aicheng Chen, Photoassisted Deposition of Palladium Nanoparticles on Carbon Nitride for Efficient Oxygen Reduction, J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 14467–14473. (2016)
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  30. Paul C. Stanish and Pavle V. Radovanovic, Surface-Enabled Energy Transfer in Ga2O3–CdSe/CdS Nanocrystal Composite Films: Tunable All-Inorganic Rare Earth Element-Free White-Emitting Phosphor, J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 19566–19573. (2016)
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  32. Vahid Ghodsi, Arunasish Layek, Manu Hegde, Baran Yildirim, Pavle V. Radovanovic, Native defects determine phase-dependent photoluminescence behavior of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in In2O3 nanocrystals, (Communication) Chem. Commun. 52, 4353-4356. (2016)
  33. A. Banerjia, M.J. Lukitschb, A.T. Alpasa, Friction reduction mechanisms in cast iron sliding against DLC: Effect of biofuel (E85) diluted engine oil, Wear 368–369, 196–209. (2016)
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  35. J.P. Oliveira, B. Panton, Z. Zeng, C.M. Andrei, Y. Zhou, R.M. Miranda, F.M. Braz Fernandes, Laser joining of NiTi to Ti6Al4V using a Niobium interlayer, Acta Materialia 105, 9-15. (2016)
  36. Christopher Odetola, E. Bradley Easton, Liliana Trevani, Investigation of TiO 2 /carbon electrocatalyst supports prepared using glucose as a modifier, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 41, 8199-8208. (2016)
  37. Rahmaan, T., Bardelcik, A., Imbert, J., Butcher, C., Worswick, M.J., Effect of Strain Rate onFlow Stress and Anisotropy of DP600, TRIP780 and AA5182-O Sheet Metal Alloys, International Journal of Impact Engineering 88, 72-90. (2016)
  38. Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M., Assessment of the Critical Parameters Influencing the Edge Stretchability of Advanced High-Strength Steel Sheet, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND PERFORMANCE 25, 4919-4932. (2016)
  39. O.A. Gali, M. Shafiei, J.A. Hunter, A.R. Riahi, Amorphous iron nanoparticles formed on aluminum surfaces during thermomechanical treatment, Materials Letters 176, 159-164. (2016)
  40. O. A. Gali, M. Shafiei, J. A. Hunter, A. R. Riahi, The development of near-surface microstructures during hot rolling of aluminum–magnesium alloys in relation to work roll topography, Surface and Interface Analysis 48, 889-898. (2016)
  41. O. A. Gali, M. Shafiei, J. A. Hunter, A. R. Riahi, The characterization of near-surface defects evolved on aluminum–manganese alloys during hot rolling, Surface and Interface Analysis 48, 877-888. (2016)
  42. O.A. Gali, M. Shafiei, J.A. Hunter, A.R. Riahi, The influence of work roll roughness on the surface/near-surface microstructure evolution of hot rolled aluminum–magnesium alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Tech. 237, 331-341. (2016)
  43. O.A. Gali, M. Shafiei, J.A. Hunter, A.R. Riahi, The initiation of roll coating buildup during thermomechanical processing of aluminum-magnesium alloys, Surface & Coatings Technology 308, 328-336. (2016)
  44. B. Li, O.A. Gali, M. Shafiei, J.A. Hunter, A.R. Riahi, Aluminum transfer buildup on PVD coated work rolls during thermomechanical processing, Surface & Coatings Technology 308, 244-255. (2016)
  45. C.J. Silva, A. Kula, R.K. Mishra, M. Niewczas, Grain growth kinetics and annealed texture characteristics of Mg-Sc binary alloys, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 687, 548-561. (2016)
  46. B. AlOtaibi; Kong, X.; Vanka, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Pofelski, A.; Oudjedi, F.; Fan, S.; Kibria, M. G.; Botton, G. A.; Ji, W.; Guo, H.; Mi, Z., Photochemical Carbon Dioxide Reduction on Mg-Doped Ga(In)N Nanowire Arrays under Visible Light Irradiation, Acs Energy Letters 1, 246-252. (2016)
  47. S. J. Barrow; Collins, S. M.; Rossouw, D.; Funston, A. M.; Botton, G. A.; Midgley, P. A.; Mulvaney, P., Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Investigation into Symmetry in Gold Trimer and Tetramer Plasmonic Nanoparticle Structures, Acs Nano 10, 8552-8563. (2016)
  48. E. P. Bellido; Manjavacas, A.; Zhang, Y.; Cao, Y.; Nordlander, P.; Botton, G. A., Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy of Multipolar Edge and Cavity Modes in Silver Nanosquares, Acs Photonics 3, 428-433. (2016)
  49. M. Bugnet; Loffler, S.; Hawthorn, D.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Luke, G. M.; Schattschneider, P.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Radtke, G.; Botton, G. A., Real-space localization and quantification of hole distribution in chain-ladder Sr3Ca11Cu24O41 superconductor, Science Advances 2, UNSP e1501652. (2016)
  50. M. Bugnet; Radtke, G.; Woo, S. Y.; Zhu, G. Z.; Botton, G. A., Temperature-dependent high energy-resolution EELS of ferroelectric and paraelectric BaTiO3 phases, Physical Review B 93, 020102. (2016)
  51. A. Casu; Genovese, A.; Manna, L.; Longo, P.; Buha, J.; Botton, G. A.; Lazar, S.; Upadhyay, M.; Schwingenschloegl, U.; Prato, M.; Li, H. B.; Ghosh, S.; Palazon, F.; De Donato, F.; Mozo, S. L.; Zuddas, E.; Falqui, A., Cu2Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange, Acs Nano 10, 2406-2414. (2016)
  52. N. C. Cheng; Stambula, S.; Wang, D.; Banis, M. N.; Liu, J.; Riese, A.; Xiao, B. W.; Li, R. Y.; Sham, T. K.; Liu, L. M.; Botton, G. A.; Sun, X. L., Platinum single-atom and cluster catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction, Nature Communications 7, 13638. (2016)
  53. S. Chu; Fan, S. Z.; Wang, Y. J.; Rossouw, D.; Wang, Y. C.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z. T., Tunable Syngas Production from CO2 and H2O in an Aqueous Photoelectrochemical Cell, Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 55, 14260-14264. (2016)
  54. J. S. Elias; Artrith, N.; Bugnet, M.; Giordano, L.; Botton, G. A.; Kolpak, A. M.; Shao-Horn, Y., Elucidating the Nature of the Active Phase in Copper/Ceria Catalysts for CO Oxidation, Acs Catalysis 6, 1675-1679. (2016)
  55. S. Fan; Woo, S. Y.; Vanka, S.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z., An In0.5Ga0.5N nanowire photoanode for harvesting deep visible light photons, Apl Materials 4, 076106. (2016)
  56. N. Farahi; Prabhudev, S.; Botton, G. A.; Salvador, J. R.; Kleinke, H., Nano- and Microstructure Engineering: An Effective Method for Creating High Efficiency Magnesium Silicide Based Thermoelectrics, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, 34431-34437. (2016)
  57. N. Farahi; Prabhudev, S.; Bugnet, M.; Botton, G. A.; Salvador, J. R.; Kleinke, H., Effect of Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles on the Grain Boundary Segregation and Thermoelectric Properties of Bismuth Doped Mg2Si0.7Ge0.3, Journal of Electronic Materials 45, 6052-6058. (2016)
  58. M. G. Han; Garlow, J. A.; Bugnet, M.; Divilov, S.; Marshall, M. S. J.; Wu, L. J.; Dawber, M.; Fernandez-Serra, M.; Botton, G. A.; Cheong, S. W.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.; Zhu, Y. M., Coupling of bias-induced crystallographic shear planes with charged domain walls in ferroelectric oxide thin films, Physical Review B 94, 100101. (2016)
  59. B. Langelier; Persaud, S. Y.; Newman, R. C.; Botton, G. A., An atom probe tomography study of internal oxidation processes in Alloy 600, Acta Materialia 109, 55-68. (2016)
  60. B. H. Le; Zhao, S. R.; Liu, X. H.; Woo, S. Y.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z. T., Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications, Advanced Materials 28, 8446-8454. (2016)
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  62. H. S. Liu; Foster, J. M.; Gully, A.; Krachkovskiy, S.; Jiang, M.; Wu, Y.; Yang, X. Y.; Protas, B.; Goward, G. R.; Botton, G. A., Three-dimensional investigation of cycling-induced microstructural changes in lithium-ion battery cathodes using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, Journal of Power Sources 306, 300-308. (2016)
  63. S. Mahboubi; Jiao, Y.; Cook, W.; Zheng, W.; Guzonas, D. A.; Botton, G. A.; Kish, J. R., Stability of Chromia (Cr2O3)-Based Scales Formed During Corrosion of Austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys in Flowing Oxygenated Supercritical Water, Corrosion 72, 1170-1180. (2016)
  64. L. G. D. Melo; Hitchcock, A. P.; Berejnov, V.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J.; Botton, G. A., Evaluating focused ion beam and ultramicrotome sample preparation for analytical microscopies of the cathode layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources 312, 23-35. (2016)
  65. Z. Mi; Zhao, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Bugnet, M.; Djavid, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, J.; Kong, X.; Ji, W.; Guo, H.; Liu, Z.; Botton, G. A., Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics 49, 364006. (2016)
  66. S. Y. Persaud; Ramamurthy, S.; Korinek, A.; Botton, G. A.; Newman, R. C., The influence of the high Fe and Cr contents of Alloy 800 on its inter and intragranular oxidation tendency in 480 degrees C hydrogenated steam, Corrosion Science 106, 117-126. (2016)
  67. S. Y. Persaud; Smith, J.; Korinek, A.; Botton, G. A.; Newman, R. C., High resolution analysis of oxidation in Ni-Fe-Cr alloys after exposure to 315 degrees C deaerated water with added hydrogen, Corrosion Science 106, 236-248. (2016)
  68. Y. H. Ra; Wang, R. J.; Woo, S. Y.; Djavid, M.; Sadaf, S. M.; Lee, J.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z. T., Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays, Nano Letters 16, 4608-4615. (2016)
  69. D. Rossouw; Langelier, B.; Scullion, A.; Danaie, M.; Botton, G. A., Multivariate-aided mapping of rare-earth partitioning in a wrought magnesium alloy, Scripta Materialia 124, 174-178. (2016)
  70. Y. Sato; Bugnet, M.; Terauchi, M.; Botton, G. A.; Yoshiasa, A., Heterogeneous diamond phases in compressed graphite studied by electron energy-loss spectroscopy, Diamond and Related Materials 64, 190-196. (2016)
  71. H. P. Van Landeghem; Langelier, B.; Panahi, D.; Purdy, G. R.; Hutchinson, C. R.; Botton, G. A.; Zurob, H. S., Solute Segregation During Ferrite Growth: Solute/Interphase and Substitutional/Interstitial Interactions, Jom 68, 1329-1334. (2016)
  72. R. Y. Wang; Higgins, D. C.; Lee, D. U.; Prabhudev, S.; Hassan, F. M.; Chabot, V.; Lui, G.; Jiang, G. P.; Choi, J. Y.; Rasenthiram, L.; Fu, J.; Botton, G.; Chen, Z. W., Biomimetic design of monolithic fuel cell electrodes with hierarchical structures, Nano Energy 20, 57-67. (2016)
  73. S. Zhao; Woo, S. Y.; Sadaf, S. M.; Wu, Y.; Pofelski, A.; Laleyan, D. A.; Rashid, R. T.; Wang, Y.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z., Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics, Apl Materials 4, 086115. (2016)
  1. Z. Shen, Y. Chen, M. Haghshenas, T. Nguyen, J. Galloway, A.P. Gerlich, Interfacial microstructure and properties of copper clad steel produced using friction stir welding versus gas metal arc welding, Materials Characterization 104, 1–9 (2015)
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  13. Zhen Hu, Tyler Patten, Robert Pelton, Emily D. Cranston, Synergistic Stabilization of Emulsions and Emulsion Gels with Water-Soluble Polymers and Cellulose Nanocrystals, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 3, 1023−1031 (2015)
  14. Guowei Zhou, Mukesh K. Jain, Peidong Wu, Yichuan Shao, Dayong Li, Yinghong Peng, Experiment and Crystal Plasticity Analysis on Plastic Deformation of AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheet under Intermediate Temperatures: How Deformation Mechanisms Involve, Submitted to Inter. J. Plasticity, published on line in December 2015 (awaiting print).
  15. X. Hu, D. S. Wilkinson, M. Jain, P-D. Wu, R. K. Mishra, Fuel cap stamping simulation of AA5754 sheets using a microstructure based multi-scale approach, Comp. Mater. Sci. 98, 354-365 (2015)
  16. H. Noori, M. Jain, K. Nielsen, F. Brandys, Influence of metallic substrate surface engineering on peel resistance of adhesively bonded polymer film, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 29, 1403–1413 (2015)
  17. M. Habibnejad-Korayem, M. K. Jain, R. K.Mishra, Microstructure modification and bendability improvement of AZ31 magnesium sheet by bending–unbending and annealing process, Mater. Sc. Eng. A 648, 371-384 (2015)
  18. R. Roumina, M. Bruhis, J. P. Masse, H. S. Zurob, M. Jain, O. Bouaziz, J. D. Embury, Bending Properties of Functionally Graded 300M Steels, Mater. Sc. Eng. A, accepted in December 2015, in press.
  19. G. Zhou, K. Ananthaeswara, G. Mitukiewicz, D. Li, R. K. Mishra, M. Jain, FE Simulations of Gas Blow Forming and Prediction of Forming Limit Diagram of AZ31 Magnesium Sheet, J. Mater. Proc. Tech. 218, 12-22 (2015)
  20. Y. Jiao, W. Zheng, D. Guzonas, W. Cook, J. Kish, Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Type 316L Stainless Steel Exposed in Supercritical Water, J. Nucl. Mater. 464, 356 (2015)
  21. F. Eliyan, J. Kish, A. Alfantazi, Voltammetric Analysis on the Formation of Fe(OH)2 and FeCO3, and on the Reactivity of Passivation of Steel in Carbonate Solutions, JMEPEG 24, 2473 (2015)
  22. Z. Cano, J. McDermid, J. Kish, Cathodic Activity of Corrosion Filaments Formed on Mg Alloy AM30, J. Electrochem. Soc. 162, C732 (2015)
  23. K. Choudhry, S. Mahboubi, G. Botton, J. Kish, I. Svishchev, Corrosion of Engineering Materials in a Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor: Characterization of Oxide Scales on Alloy 800H and Stainless Steel 316, Corros. Sci. 100, 222 (2015)
  24. S. Mahboubi, G. Botton, J. Kish, Corrosion Resistance of Alloy 33 (Fe-33Cr-32Ni) in Supercritical Water, Corrosion 71, 1064 (2015)
  25. S. Mahboubi, G. Botton, J. Kish, On the Oxidation Resistance of Alloy 800HT Exposed in Supercritical Water (SCW), Corrosion 71, 992 (2015)
  26. J. Dabrowski, J. Kish, Localized Corrosion Susceptibility of Extruded Cu-Lean AA7xxx Gas Metal Arc Welding Lap Joints, Corrosion 71, 895 (2015)
  27. Z. Cano, M. Danaie, J. Kish, J. McDermid, G. Botton, G. Williams, Physical Characterization of Cathodically-Activated Corrosion Filaments on Magnesium Alloy AZ31B, Corrosion 71, 146 (2015)
  28. C. Krishnan, A. Kobylecky, J. Kish, Exfoliation Corrosion of an Extruded Low-Cu-Containing AA7003-T6 Profile with a Partially Recrystallised Grain Structure, Can. Metall. Quart. 54, 349 (2015)
  29. Abarca, C., Yang, S., Pelton, R. H., Towards High Throughput Screening of Nanoparticle Flotation Collectors, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 460, 97-104 (2015)
  30. Henry P. Schwarcz, The ultrastructure of bone as revealed in electron microscopy of ion-milled sections, Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 46, 44-50 (2015)
  31. Y. Cai, S. Chen, K. Grandfield, H. Engqvist, W. Xia, Fabrication of translucent nanoceramics via a simple filtration method, RSC Advances 5, 99848-99855 (2015)
  32. V. Vuong, M. Pettersson, C. Persson, S. Larsson, K. Grandfield, H. Engqvist, Surface and Subsurface Analyses of Metal-on-Polyethylene Total Hip Replacement Retrievals, Annals of Biomedical Engineering X, 1-13 (2015)
  33. F. Shah, X. Wang, P. Thomsen, K. Grandfield, A. Palmquist, High-resolution visualisation of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network juxtaposed to the surface of nanotextured titanium implants in human, ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering 1, 305-313 (2015)
  34. T. Guo, M.J. Deen, C.Q. Xu, Q. Fang, P.R. Selvaganapathy, H. Zhang, Observation of Ultra-slow Stress Release in Silicon Nitride Films on CaF2, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 33, 041515 (2015)
  35. Y. Liu, M.R. Thompson, K.P. O’Donnell, Function of upstream and downstream conveying elements in wet granulation processes within a twin screw extruder, Powd. Technol. 284, 551-559 (2015)
  36. Z.P. Cano, J.R. Kish, J.R. McDermid, On the Evolution of Cathodic Activity during Corrosion of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B in a Dilute NaCl Solution, J. Electrochem. Soc. 163, C62-C68 (2016)
  37. M. Ghasri-Khouzani, J.R. McDermid, Effect of carbon content on the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of Fe-22Mn-C steels, Mat. Sci. Eng. A 621, 118-127 (2015)
  38. Z. Yang, J. Kang, D.S. Wilkinson, Characterization of Pore Defects and Fatigue Cracks in Die Cast AM60 Using Computed X-ray Tomography, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46, 1576-85 (2015)
  39. D. Gariepy, Q. Zhang, S. Zhu, CO2‐Redispersible Polymer Latexes with Low Glass Transition Temperatures, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 216, 561-568 (2015)
  40. H. Liu, H. Zhu, S. Zhu, Reversibly Dispersible/Collectable Metal‐Organic Frameworks Prepared by Grafting Thermally Responsive and Switchable Polymers, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 300, 191-197 (2015)
  41. Y. Qian, X. Qiu, S. Zhu, Lignin: a nature-inspired sun blocker for broad-spectrum sunscreens, Green Chemistry 17, 320-324 (2015)
  42. Ren, Q., S. Zhu, One-Pack Epoxy Foaming with CO2 as Latent Blowing Agent, ACS Macro Letters 4, 693-697 (2015)
  43. Zhu, H., et al., Preparation of metal–organic framework films by electrophoretic deposition method. Materials Letters 142, 19-22 (2015)
  44. Zhu, H., Q. Zhang, S. Zhu, Preparation of raspberry-like ZIF-8/PS composite spheres via dispersion polymerization, Dalton Transactions 44, 16752-16757 (2015)
  45. Zhu, H., S. Zhu, A versatile and facile surface modification route based on polydopamine for the growth of MOF films on different substrates, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 93, 63-67 (2015)
  46. Ren, Q., et al., Development of epoxy foaming with CO2 as latent blowing agent and principle in selection of amine curing agent, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 54, 11056-11064 (2015)
  47. F.M. Hassan, R. Batmaz, J. Li, X. Wang, X. Xiao, Z.W. Chen, Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon-sulfur-graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries, Nature Communications 6, 8597 (2015)
  48. J. Fu, D.U. Lee, F.M. Hassan, L. Yang, Z.Y. Bai, M.G. Park, Z.W. Chen, Flexible high-energy polymer-electrolyte-based rechargeable zinc-air batteries,Advanced Materials 27, 5623 (2015)
  49. X. Wang, G. Li, M.H. Seo, F.M. Hassan, M.D. Hoque, Z.W. Chen, Sulfur Atoms Bridging Few-layered MoS2 with S-doped Graphene Enables Highly Robust Anode for Lithium-ion Batteries, Advanced Energy Materials 5, 1501106 (2015)
  50. X. Wang, G. Li, F.M. Hassan, J. Li, X. Fan, R. Batmaz, X. Xiao, Z.W. Chen, Sulfur Covalently Bonded Graphene with Large Capacity and High Rate for High-Performance Sodium-ion Batteries Anodes, Nano Energy 15, 746-754 (2015)
  51. D.U. Lee, M.G. Park, H.W. Park, M.H. Seo, X. Wang, Z.W. Chen, Highly Active and Durable Nanocrystal Decorated Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc–Air Batteries, Chem. Sus. Chem. 8, 3129-3138 (2015)
  52. X. Wang, X. Fan, G. Li, M. Li, X. Xiao, A. Yu, Z.W. Chen, Composites of MnO2 Nanocrystals and Partially Graphitized Hierarchically Porous Carbon Spheres with Improved Rate Capability for High-Performance Supercapacitors, Carbon 93, 258-265 (2015)
  53. R. Wang, D. Higgins, S. Prabhudev, D.U. Lee, J.Y. Choi, M.D. Hoque, A.G. Botton, Z. Chen, Synthesis and structural evolution of Pt nanotubular skeletons: revealing the source of the instability of nanostructured electrocatalysts, Journal of Materials Chemistry A 3, 12663-12671 (2015)
  54. X. Wang, G. Li, F. Hassan, M. Li, K. Feng, X. Xiao, Z. W. Chen, Building sponge-like robust architectures of CNT– graphene–Si composites with enhanced rate and cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Materials Chemistry A 3, 3962–3967 (2015)
  55. Park, H. W.; Lee, D.U.; Park, M.G.; Ahmed, R.;Seo M. H. ; Nazar, L. F.; and Chen Z. W., One-pot Synthesis of Perovskite Oxide-based Nitrogen Doped Carbon Nanotube Composite as a Bi-functional Catalyst for Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries, Chem. Sus. Chem. 8, 1058 –1065 (2015)
  56. Higgins, D.C.; Hassan, F.; Seo, M. H. ; Choi, J. Y. ; Hoque, M. A.; Lee, D. U.; and Chen, Z. W., Shape-controlled octahedral cobalt disulfide nanoparticles supported on nitrogen and sulfur-doped graphene/carbon nanotube composites for oxygen reduction in acidic electrolyte, Journal of Materials Chemistry A3, 6340–6350 (2015)
  57. Hoque, M. A.; Hassan, F.; Higgins, D.; Choi, J. Y.; Pritzker, M.; Knights, S.; Ye, S.; and Chen, Z. W., Multigrain platinum nanowires consisting of oriented nanoparticles anchored on sulfur-doped graphene as a highly active and durable oxygen reduction electrocatalyst, Advanced Materials 27, 1229–1234 (2015)
  58. Bhowmick S., Banerji A., Lukitsch M.J., Alpas A.T., The high temperature tribological behavior of Si, O containing hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (aC: H/a- Si:O) coating against an aluminum alloy, Wear 330, 261-271 (2015)
  59. Bhowmick S., Banerji A., Alpas A.T., Role of Humidity in reducing sliding friction of multilayered graphene, Carbon 87, 374-384 (2015)
  60. Rice, N. A.; Subrahmanyam, A. V.; Coleman, B. R.; Adronov, A., Effect of Induction on the Dispersion of Semiconducting and Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Conjugated Polymers, Macromolecules 48, 5155–5161 (2015)
  61. Rice, N. A.; Subrahmanyam, A. V.; Laengert, S. E.; Adronov, A., The Effect of Molecular Weight on the Separation of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Poly(2,7-carbazole)s, J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 53, 2510–2516 (2015)
  62. L Jin, A Edrisy, AR Riahi, Analysis of Ti–6Al–4V adhesion to AISI 52100 steel and TiN during unlubricated sliding contact, Tribology International 90, 278-286 (2015)
  63. OA Gali, M Shafiei, JA Hunter, AR Riahi, A study of the development of micro-cracks in surface/near surface of aluminum–manganese alloys during hot rolling, Materials Science and Engineering A 627, 191-204 (2015)
  64. OA Gali, M Shafiei, JA Hunter, Q Zhao, AR Riahi, The formation of micro-blisters on Al–Mg alloy surfaces during hot rolling, Tribology International 87, 65-71 (2015)
  65. OA Gali, AR Riahi, AT Alpas, The effect of surface conditions on the elevated temperature sliding contact deformation of AA5083 alloy, Wear 330, 309-319 (2015)
  66. OA Gali, M Shafiei, JA Hunter, AR Riahi, The development of near‐surface microstructures during hot rolling of aluminum–magnesium alloys in relation to work roll topography, Surface and Interface Analysis, DOI 10.1002/sia.5863 (2015)
  67. OA Gali, M Shafiei, JA Hunter, AR Riahi, The characterization of near‐surface defects evolved on aluminum–manganese alloys during hot rolling, Surface and Interface Analysis, DOI 10.1002/sia.5864 (2015)
  68. Chan-Thaw, CE;  Chinchilla, LE;  Campisi, S;  Botton, GA;  Prati, L;  Dimitratos, N;  Villa, A; AuPt Alloy on TiO2: A Selective and Durable Catalyst for L-Sorbose  Oxidation to 2-Keto-Gulonic Acid, Chem. Sus. Chem. 8, 4189-4194 (2015)
  69. Prabhudev, S; Bugnet, M; Zhu, GZ; Bock, C; Botton, GA, Surface Segregation of Fe in Pt-Fe Alloy Nanoparticles: Its Precedence and Effect on the Ordered-Phase Evolution during Thermal Annealing, Chem. Cat. Chem. 7, 3655-3664 (2015)
  70. T. Majdi, G.Z. Zhu, J. Carvalho, V. Jarvis, K. Meinander, JF. Britten, G.A. Botton, J.S. Preston, Evidence for an equilibrium epitaxial complexion at the Au-MgAl2O4 interface, Applied Physics Letters 107, 241601 (2015)
  71. S. Zhao, SY. Woo, M. Bugnet, X. Liu, J Kang, G.A. Botton, Z. Mi, Three-Dimensional Quantum Confinement of Charge Carriers in Self-Organized AlGaN Nanowires: A Viable Route to Electrically Injected Deep Ultraviolet Lasers, Nano Letters 15, 7801-7807(2015)
  72. Bidabadi, AS; Korinek, A; Botton, GA; Varin, RA, High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction studies of nanocrystalline manganese borohydride (Mn(BH4)2) after mechano-chemical synthesis and thermal dehydrogenation, Acta Materialia 100, 392-400 (2015)
  73. Farahi, N; Prabhudev, S; Botton, GA; Zhao, JB; Tse, JS; Liu, ZX; Salvador, JR; Kleinke, H, Local structure and thermoelectric properties of Mg2Si0.977-xGexBi0.023 (0.1 <= x <= 0.4), Journal Of Alloys And Compounds 644, 249-255 (2015)
  74. Woo, SY; Gauquelin, N; Nguyen, HPT; Mi, ZT; Botton, GA, 2015, Interplay of strain and indium incorporation in InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire nanostructures by scanning transmission electron microscopy, Nanotechnology 26, 344002 (2015)
  75. Zhao, S; Liu, X; Woo, SY; Kang, J; Botton, GA; Mi, Z, An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band, Applied Physics Letters 107, 043101 (2015)
  76. Foster, JM; Gully, A; Liu, H; Krachkovskiy, S; Wu, Y; Schougaard, SB; Jiang, M; Goward, G; Botton, GA; Protas, B, Homogenization Study of the Effects of Cycling on the Electronic Conductivity of Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes, Journal Of Physical Chemistry C 119, 12199-12208 (2015)
  77. Jaksic, JM; Nan, FH; Papakonstantinou, GD; Botton, GA; Jaksic, MM, Theory, Substantiation, and Properties of Novel Reversible Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Electrode Reactions, Journal Of Physical Chemistry C 119, 11267-11285 (2015)
  78. Danaie, M; Fritzsche, H; Kalisvaart, WP; Tan, XH; Mitlin, D; Botton, GA; Huot, J, Reactions in a multilayered Si (substrate)/Ta/Mg/Fe/Ta/Pd thin-film structure during annealing and deuterium absorption, Acta Materialia 90, 259-271 (2015)
  79. S.Z. Fan, B. Alotibi, S.Y. Woo, Y.J. Wang, G.A. Botton, Z.T. Mi, High Efficiency Solar-to-Hydrogen Conversion on a Monolithically Integrated InGaN/GaN/Si Adaptive Tunnel Junction Photocathode, Nano Letters 15, 2721-2726 (2015)
  80. Shen, HX; Zhu, GZ; Botton, GA; Kitai, A, Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy study on the effect of magnetron sputtering atmosphere on GaN/SiC interface and gallium nitride thin film crystal structure, Journal Of Applied Physics 117, 115301 (2015)
  81. Tan, XH; Prabhudev, S; Kohandehghan, A; Karpuzov, D; Botton, GA; Mitlin, D, Pt-Au-Co Alloy Electrocatalysts Demonstrating Enhanced Activity and Durability toward the Oxygen Reduction Reaction, ACS Catalysis 5, 1513-1524 (2015)
  82. Scullion, A; Thompson, DA; Botton, GA, Growth and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of InAs quantum wires on vicinal substrates, Journal Of Crystal Growth 412, 87-94 (2015)
  83. Judge, CD; Gauquelin, N; Walters, L; Wright, M; Cole, JI; Madden, J; Botton, GA; Griffiths, M, Intergranular fracture in irradiated Inconel X-750 containing very high concentrations of helium and hydrogen, Journal Of Nuclear Materials 457, 165-172 (2015)
  84. Nguyen, HPT; Djavid, M; Woo, SY; Liu, XH; Connie, AT; Sadaf, SM; Wang, Q; Botton, GA; Shih, I; Mi, ZT, Engineering the Carrier Dynamics of InGaN Nanowire White Light-Emitting Diodes by Distributed p-AlGaN Electron Blocking Layers, Scientific Reports 5, 7744 (2015)
  85. Espinosa, A; Bugnet, M; Radtke, G; Neveu, S; Botton, GA; Wilhelm, C; Abou-Hassan, A, Can magneto-plasmonic nanohybrids efficiently combine photothermia with magnetic hyperthermia?, Nanoscale 7, 18872-18877 (2015)
  86. Dauphin-Ducharme, P; Kuss, C; Rossouw, D; Payne, NA; Danis, L; Botton, GA; Mauzeroll, J, Corrosion Product Formation Monitored Using the Feedback Mode of Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy with Carbon Microelectrodes, Journal Of The Electrochemical Society 162, C677-C683 (2015)
  87. Tefashe, UM; Dauphin-Ducharme, P; Danaie, M; Cano, ZP; Kish, JR; Botton, GA; Mauzeroll, J, Localized Corrosion Behavior of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy with an Electrodeposited Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Coating, Journal Of The Electrochemical Society 162, C536-C544 (2015)
  88. Farahi, N; Prabhudev, S; Bugnet, M; Botton, GA; Zhao, JB; Tse, JS; Salvador, JR; Kleinke, H, Enhanced figure of merit in Mg2Si0.877Ge0.1Bi0.023/multi wall carbon nanotube nanocomposites, RSC Advances 5, 65328-65336 (2015)
  89. Nguyen, HPT; Djavid, M; Woo, SY; Liu, XH; Wang, Q; Botton, GA; Mi, ZT, High-Power Phosphor-Free InGaN/AlGaN Dot-in-a-Wire Core-Shell White-Light-Emitting Diodes, Light-Emitting Diodes: Materials, Devices, And Applications For Solid State Lighting Xix, Proceedings of SPIE 9383, 938307 (2015)
  90. Zhu, GZ; Botton, GA, 2015, Damage behavior and atomic migration in MgAl2O4 under an 80 keV scanning focused probe in a STEM, Micron 68, 141-145 (2015)
  91. B. Langelier, S. Esmaeili, Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys, Mater. Charact. 101, 1–8 (2015)
  92. B. Langelier, A.M. Nasiri, S.Y. Lee, M.A. Gharghouri, S. Esmaeili, Improving microstructure and ductility in the Mg–Zn alloy system by combinational Ce–Ca microalloying, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 620, 76–84 (2015)
  93. X. Wang, B. Langelier, A. Palmquist, K. Grandfield, Biomineralization at Interfaces Revealed with 4D Electron and Atom Probe, Microsc. Microanal. 21 Suppl 3, 83–84 (2015)
  94. K. J. Harris, M. Bugnet, M. Naguib, M. W. Barsoum, Gillian R. Goward, Structural Study of the 2D MXene V2CTxusing 1H, 19F, and 13C Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, 13713–13720 (2015)
  95. F. Gustavsson, M. Bugnet, T. Polcar, A. Cavaleiro, S. Jacobson. A High Resolution TEM/EELS Study of the Effect of Doping Elements on the Sliding Mechanisms of Sputtered WS2Coatings, Tribology Transactions 58, 113-118 (2015)
  96. André Fekecs, Andreas Korinek, Martin Chicoine, Bouraoui Ilahi, François Schiettekatte, Denis Morris, Richard Arès, Microstructural evolution of a recrystallized Fe-implanted InGaAsP/InP heterostructure, physica status solidi (a) 212, 1888-1896 (2015)
  97. Yasir Idrees, Elisabeth M. Francis, Zhongwen Yao, Andreas Korinek, Marquis A. Kirk, Mohammad Sattari, Michael Preuss, Mark R. Daymond, Effects of alloying elements on the formation of <c>-component loops in Zr alloy Excel under heavy ion irradiation, Journal of Materials Research 30, 1310-1334 (2015)
  98. André Fekecs, Andreas Korinek, Martin Chicoine, Bouraoui Ilahi, François Schiettekatte, Denis Morris, Richard Arès, Microstructural evolution of a recrystallized Fe-implanted InGaAsP/InP heterostructure, physica status solidi (a) 212, pages (2015)
  99. Dong Un Lee,Moon Gyu Park,Hey Woong Park,Min Ho Seo,Vugar Ismayilov,Raihan Ahmed, Zhongwei Chen, Highly active Co-doped LaMnO3 perovskite oxide and N-doped carbon nanotube hybrid bi-functional catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air batteries, Electrochemistry Communications 60, 38-41 (2015)
  100. Dong Un Lee, Moon Gyu Park, Hey Woong Park, Min Ho Seo, Xiaolei Wang, Zhongwei Chen, Highly Active and Durable Nanocrystal-Decorated Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries, Chem. Sus. Chem. 8, 3129-3138 (2015)
  101. Guan Huang, Enyun He, Zhongde Wang, Huiling Fan, Ju Shangguan, Eric Croiset, Zhongwei Chen, Synthesis and Characterization of gamma-Fe2O3 for H2S Removal at Low Temperature, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 54, 8469-8478 ( 2015)
  102. Hey Woong Park, Dong Un Lee, Moon Gyu Park, Raihan Ahmed, Min Ho Seo, Linda F. Nazar, Zhongwei Chen, Perovskite-Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Composite as Bifunctional Catalysts for Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries, Chem. Sus. Chem.  8, 1058-1065 (2015)
  103. Xiaolei Wang, Ge Li, Fathy M. Hassan, Matthew Li, Kun Feng, Xingcheng Xiao, Zhongwei Chen, Building sponge-like robust architectures of CNTgraphene-Si composites with enhanced rate and cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries, J. Mater. Chem. A 3, 3962-3967 (2015)
  104. Bing Li, Drew C. Higgins, Qiangfeng Xiao, Daijun Yang, Cunman Zhng, Mei Cai, Zhongwei Chen, Jianxin Ma, The durability of carbon supported Pt nanowire as novel cathode catalyst for a 1.5 kW PEMFC stack, Applied Catalysis B-Environmental 162, 33-140 (2015)
  105. Karthikeyan Kaliyappan, Jian Liu, Andrew Lushington, RuyingLi, and XueliangSun, Highly Stable Na-2/3(Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13)O-2 Cathode Modified by Atomic Layer Deposition for Sodium-Ion Batteries, Chem. Sus. Chem. 8, 2537-2543 (2015)
  106. Minsi Li, Xifei Li, Weihan Li, Xiangbo Meng, Yan Yu, Xueliang Sun, Atomic layer deposition derived amorphous TiO2 thin film decorating graphene nanosheets with superior rate capability, Electrochemistry Communications 57, 43-47 (2015)
  107. Biwei Xiao, Jian Liu, Qian Sun, Biqiong Wang, Mohammad Norouzi Banis, Dong Zhao, Zhiqiang Wang, Ruying Li, Xiaoyu Cui, Tsun-Kong Sham, and Xueliang Sun, Unravelling the Role of Electrochemically Active FePO4 Coating by Atomic Layer Deposition for Increased High-Voltage Stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material, Advanced Science 2, 1500022 (2015)
  108. Jian Liu, Biwei Xiao, Mohammad N. Banis, Ruying Li, Tsun-Kong Sham, Xueliang Sun, Atomic layer deposition of amorphous iron phosphates on carbon nanotubes as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, Electrochimica Acta 162, 275-281 (2015)
  109. Yu Zhong, Xifei Li, Yong Zhang, Ruying Li, Mei Cai, Xueliang Sun, Nanostructued core-shell Sn nanowires @ CNTs with controllable thickness of CNT shells for lithium ion battery, Applied Surface Science 32, 192-197 (2015)
  110. Niancai Cheng, Mohammad Norouzi Banis, Jian Liu, Adam Riese, Xia Li, Ruying Li, Siyu Ye, Shanna Knights, and Xueliang Sun, Extremely Stable Platinum Nanoparticles Encapsulated in a Zirconia Nanocage by Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction, Advanced Materials 27, 277-281 (2015)
  111. Jian Liu, Mohammad N. Banis, Biwei Xiao, Qian Sun, Andrew Lushington, Ruying Li, Jinghua Guo, Tsun-Kong Sham and Xueliang Sun, Atomically precise growth of sodium titanates as anode materials for high-rate and ultralong cycle-life sodium-ion batteries, J. Mater. Chem. A 3, 24281-24288 (2015)
  112. Jiajun Wang and Xueliang Sun, Olivine LiFePO4: the remaining challenges for future energy storage, Energy & Environmental Science 8, 1110-1138 (2015)
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  2. G.-Z. Zhu, G. Radtke, G.A. Botton, Bonding and structure of a reconstructed (001) surface of SrTiO3 from TEM, Nature, 490 (2012) 384-387. DOI
  3. D. Rossouw, G.A. Botton, Resonant optical excitations in complementary plasmonic nanostructures, Optics Express, 20 (2012) 6968-6973. DOI
  4. E. Najafi, A.P. Hitchcock, D. Rossouw, G.A. Botton, Mapping defects in a carbon nanotube by momentum transfer dependent electron energy loss spectromicroscopy, Ultramicroscopy, 113 (2012) 158-164. DOI
  5. N.J.J. Johnson, A. Korinek, C.H. Dong, F. van Veggel, Self-Focusing by Ostwald Ripening: A Strategy for Layer-by-Layer Epitaxial Growth on Upconverting Nanocrystals, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134 (2012) 11068-11071.DOI
  6. P.T.N. Hieu, K. Cui, S.F. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G.A. Botton, Z.T. Mi, Controlling Electron Overflow in Phosphor-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire White Light-Emitting Diodes, Nano Letters, 12 (2012) 1317-1323.DOI
  7. K. Grandfield, A. Palmquist, F. Ericson, J. Malmstrom, L. Emanuelsson, C. Slotte, E. Adolfsson, G.A. Botton, P. Thomsen, H. Engqvist, Bone Response to Free-Form Fabricated Hydroxyapatite and Zirconia Scaffolds: A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study in the Human Maxilla, Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, 14 (2012) 461-469.DOI
  8. K.J. Dudeck, M. Couillard, S. Lazar, C. Dwyer, G.A. Botton, Quantitative statistical analysis, optimization and noise reduction of atomic resolved electron energy loss spectrum images, Micron, 43 (2012) 57-67.DOI
  9. A. Jomaa, G. Stewart, J.A. Mears, I. Kireeva, E.D. Brown, J. Ortega, Cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 30S subunit in complex with the YjeQ biogenesis factor, RNA, 17 (2011) 2026-2038.DOI